Artificial intelligence can be defined as the ability of a machine or robot to perform human-like tasks. In the future, artificial intelligence may be used to improve health, mitigate financial risk, and make transportation more efficient. In this article we explore the history and future of artificial intelligence, as well as the different types of machine learning.
Artificial intelligence refers to the ability of a machine or robot to perform tasks usually associated with humans. Artificial intelligence makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and information, and perform human-like tasks.
There are four general types of artificial intelligence and each vary in their level of advancement and ability:
Reactive machines are some of the most basic types of artificial intelligence. They cannot use learned information to influence future action or create memories. Instead, they are only able to react to present situations. Reactive machines perceive the world directly and react only to what they encounter.
Limited memory artificial intelligence distinguishes itself from reactive machines by its ability to analyze past experiences to influence decisions. A notable example of a limited memory artificial intelligence is a self-driving car which observes other cars’ speed and direction over time to determine how to maneuver. Still, limited memory artificial intelligence is constrained by its ability to only analyze very recent events.
Theory of mind intelligence would allow AI to interpret and understand emotions, and have complex social interactions with humans. A primitive form of Theory of Mind artificial intelligence exists in Sophia, a robot developed by Hanson Robotics which can hold basic conversations and react appropriately to human emotion. Researchers have yet to create a fully-developed theory of mind artificial intelligence.
Self-aware artificial intelligence is the most advanced type envisioned by scientists. Some researchers and scientists describe it as the ideal, final form of AI. At this level, artificial intelligence is both aware of its own internal mood and able to perceive and predict the feelings of others. Self-aware artificially intelligent beings possess deep emotional intelligence which enables them to make calculated, inferred decisions.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence which allows a machine to automatically learn from past data without explicit human interference or programming. The goal of machine learning is to use data to teach machines to perform a particular task and achieve an accurate result. On the other hand, artificial intelligence is concerned with teaching a machine to perform tasks that would otherwise be performed by humans.
When access to digital computers became available in the 1950s, scientists began to discuss the possibility of computers mirroring human thought. The first successful artificial intelligence was a program written by Christopher Strachey to play checkers in 1951. The official birth of artificial intelligence is usually recognized as the Dartmouth Conference of 1956 where artificial intelligence gained its name, central mission, and first few major successes.
After the Dartmouth Conference, artificial intelligence grew rapidly in popularity and complexity. Within the next two decades, programs gained the capacity to solve algebraic word problems, speak English, and prove theorems in geometry. The 1980s saw the birth of a form of AI system called an expert system—a program which uses logical rules derived from scientific knowledge to solve problems and answer questions about specific topics.
By the 1990s, artificial intelligence had become powerful enough to be used successfully throughout the technology industry, but its reputation was still less than ideal. Some researchers felt that the system had failed to reach the lofty expectations placed on it after its initial success in the 1960s. In the last 20 years, artificial intelligence has become increasingly embedded in daily life in many ways, including as automated virtual assistants such as Siri and cars with self-driving capabilities. It is also now being used to help better diagnosis diseases and conditions online. Reveal AI Tests are helping better diagnosis conditions like autism, IBS, insomnia, and mental health.
The future of artificial intelligence could see significant breakthroughs in the medicinal, economic, transportation and security sectors. In the medicinal field, artificial intelligence could enable doctors to better analyze data and further customize treatment to the genes, environment, and lifestyle of patients. A more developed, precise form of artificial intelligence may be able to perform surgeries and medical procedures more accurately than doctors. Within the economic sector, artificial intelligence could be used to predict and trade on the stock market, automate financial transactions, and replace human economists.
An application of artificial intelligence which has seen significant media attention and popularity recently is self-driving cars. At the moment, autonomous cars are far from perfect and still require human supervision, but future research and advancement could eliminate the risks of human error from driving and transportation.
The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence has created concerns about safety, job security, and economic stability. The most immediate danger of artificial intelligence is generally viewed to be job automation. Many industries, particularly those whose workers perform repetitive tasks, are beginning to use artificial intelligence instead of human workers to complete basic jobs. As artificial intelligence becomes more advanced and efficient, it is even possible that it will be used to replace more skilled, educated workers in fields such as law and medicine. While it is unlikely that artificial intelligence will ever completely replace human labor, many people could find themselves unemployed in the near future due to advancing AI.
Malicious use of artificial intelligence, or artificial intelligence gone rogue, could threaten digital, physical, and political security. Autonomous weapon systems, which are often programmed to kill, are an increasingly popular form of AI which could pose grave risk. In the hands of a terrorist, hacker, or other ill-intentioned group, an artificially intelligent military weapon could cause mass destruction and death.
Artificial intelligence refers to the ability of a machine or robot to perform human-like tasks.
There are four major kinds of artificial intelligence: reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind, and self-aware.
In the future, artificial intelligence may be used to improve economic transactions, transportation, and medical treatment. This includes better diagnosing conditions like autism and IBS (irritable bowel syndrome).
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not a substitute for professional medical advice and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.*